Friday, 30 August 2013

using an SLR

removed this from my personal site as it's more likely to be read here...

 

Using a Canon DSLR Camera

Some brief instructions on using a SLR camera. 

 

 

Adjustable Options on the Camera 

 

1. Turn the camera onto manual (M on the dial). P is point and shoot. 

 

2. F-stop or depth of field: Default is 5.6. If you want to hyperfocus on something and make everything else blurry, use a lower number like 3.0-4.5. If you want everything in focus, including foreground and background, set it higher like 8 or 12. The lower the f-stop the lower you can make your shutter speed, so in darker conditions, lower the f-stop. If this setting is wrong, the picture will be flat and lack depth. Or too blurry. Note that you can't force the f-stop to be a certain number; the camera may automatically adjust it upwards depending on the light. Hold down the button nearest the eyepiece and turn the dial on the right to change the f-stop.

3. Shutter speed: How long the lens stays open to let in light. Default should be about 125-250 milliseconds in normal daylight. You turn the dial next to the the shoot-button to change shutter speed. The stronger the light, the higher you can make the shutter speed. If you want to capture an animal or bird in motion, you need a high shutter speed, like 1250-2500. If this setting is wrong, the image will be too dark or too light or blurry. 

 

4. Film grade/ISO. The ISO is the old measure of the film sensitivity. Default film was ISO 200. The ISO choice is on the right hand side on the back, top right. I recommend leaving the ISO on 1600, which is very sensitive, unless you're outside, in which case set it to 400. The more sensitive the film, the faster the shutter speed has to be. If you set your shutter speed slow, and use a sensitive film, the image will get a motion blur or be over-exposed (light). Vice versa, if you set your shutter speed high, and use a high-sensitivity, the image will be crisp. If this setting is wrong, the image will be too dark or too light or blurry. If it's too dark, it will also be very grainy and pixelated. 

 

5. Focus. The front lens has an MF/AF focus switch. Tap the shoot button once to autofocus (AF). Switch to MF if you want to manually turn the lens to focus. The crosshairs that come up are the focus points. You can have the camera focus on multiple points. I tend to leave it focused on the centre only. Obviously if this setting is wrong the image will be blurry. 

 

Some example settings.

A flower: ISO 400, shutter speed 250, f-stop 5.6

A cheetah: ISO 800, shutter speed 2500, f-stop 5.6

A flower vase inside the dark interior of a house: ISO 1600, shutter speed 125, f-stop 4.5

These numbers are complete guesses - you'd have to experiment with them to find out what works best under the lighting conditions you find yourself in. The most important thing is to look at the exposure dial, aka the shutter speed. The line should be in the middle or slightly above. It looks like this on your camera screen: 

 

|-----|-----| 125

-1    0    +1 

 

You need to have it at about 0.2. The shutter speed next to it, 125, shows the shutter speed that will give you that level of exposure. The important thing is to get the exposure right. It must look like this: 

 

|-----|-|---| 125

-1    0    +1

 

with the exposure slightly over mid-way. I find that the canon needs it there, otherwise images are too dark. 

 

Some finer points about the Canon 

 

You can adjust the colour using the menu button. I find it necessary to push it towards green and cyan (G/C), because the Canon, by default, takes pictures which are too yellow. It also doesn't cope well with fluorescent colours, like super-bright-coloured flowers; it dulls the colour. This is also where you set it to Sepia/Black and White. 

 

The Canon can also do multiple shots - where you hold down the trigger. This is useful for capturing moving things, so you can select the best image of them. You would need autofocus for this to work. 

 

The images are about 20 MB - suitable for 300 DPI A4 printouts. For the web, you need to downscale them to about 1024 pixels wide; their original 3888 pixel width is too high.

Using a Canon DSLR Camera
Some brief instructions on using a SLR camera. 


Adjustable Options on the Camera 

1. Turn the camera onto manual (M on the dial). P is point and shoot. 

2. F-stop or depth of field: Default is 5.6. If you want to hyperfocus on something and make everything else blurry, use a lower number like 3.0-4.5. If you want everything in focus, including foreground and background, set it higher like 8 or 12. The lower the f-stop the lower you can make your shutter speed, so in darker conditions, lower the f-stop. If this setting is wrong, the picture will be flat and lack depth. Or too blurry. Note that you can't force the f-stop to be a certain number; the camera may automatically adjust it upwards depending on the light. Hold down the button nearest the eyepiece and turn the dial on the right to change the f-stop.
 
3. Shutter speed: How long the lens stays open to let in light. Default should be about 125-250 milliseconds in normal daylight. You turn the dial next to the the shoot-button to change shutter speed. The stronger the light, the higher you can make the shutter speed. If you want to capture an animal or bird in motion, you need a high shutter speed, like 1250-2500. If this setting is wrong, the image will be too dark or too light or blurry. 

4. Film grade/ISO. The ISO is the old measure of the film sensitivity. Default film was ISO 200. The ISO choice is on the right hand side on the back, top right. I recommend leaving the ISO on 1600, which is very sensitive, unless you're outside, in which case set it to 400. The more sensitive the film, the faster the shutter speed has to be. If you set your shutter speed slow, and use a sensitive film, the image will get a motion blur or be over-exposed (light). Vice versa, if you set your shutter speed high, and use a high-sensitivity, the image will be crisp. If this setting is wrong, the image will be too dark or too light or blurry. If it's too dark, it will also be very grainy and pixelated. 

5. Focus. The front lens has an MF/AF focus switch. Tap the shoot button once to autofocus (AF). Switch to MF if you want to manually turn the lens to focus. The crosshairs that come up are the focus points. You can have the camera focus on multiple points. I tend to leave it focused on the centre only. Obviously if this setting is wrong the image will be blurry. 

Some example settings.
  • A flower: ISO 400, shutter speed 250, f-stop 5.6
  • A cheetah: ISO 800, shutter speed 2500, f-stop 5.6
  • A flower vase inside the dark interior of a house: ISO 1600, shutter speed 125, f-stop 4.5
These numbers are complete guesses - you'd have to experiment with them to find out what works best under the lighting conditions you find yourself in. The most important thing is to look at the exposure dial, aka the shutter speed. The line should be in the middle or slightly above. It looks like this on your camera screen: 

|-----|-----| 125
-1    0    +1 

You need to have it at about 0.2. The shutter speed next to it, 125, shows the shutter speed that will give you that level of exposure. The important thing is to get the exposure right. It must look like this: 

|-----|-|---| 125
-1    0    +1

with the exposure slightly over mid-way. I find that the canon needs it there, otherwise images are too dark. 

Some finer points about the Canon 

You can adjust the colour using the menu button. I find it necessary to push it towards green and cyan (G/C), because the Canon, by default, takes pictures which are too yellow. It also doesn't cope well with fluorescent colours, like super-bright-coloured flowers; it dulls the colour. This is also where you set it to Sepia/Black and White. 

The Canon can also do multiple shots - where you hold down the trigger. This is useful for capturing moving things, so you can select the best image of them. You would need autofocus for this to work. 

The images are about 20 MB - suitable for 300 DPI A4 printouts. For the web, you need to downscale them to about 1024 pixels wide; their original 3888 pixel width is too high.

Monday, 26 August 2013

how to put equations into Apple Pages

1. Download and install LaTeX. LaTeX is an Open Source typesetting program intended for producing scientific and academic articles and research work. To get LaTeX, go to:

http://guides.macrumors.com/Installing_LaTeX_on_a_Mac

2. Create a text box in Apple Pages:

Screen Shot 2013 08 26 at 12 08 49 PM

3. Type a LaTeX equation into the text box. If you don't know how to do this, install Daum Equation Editor from the app store and click the TeX button (light blue in the grey bar at the bottom):

Screen Shot 2013 08 26 at 12 05 47 PM

So this shows what the LaTeX equation syntax is.

\sqrt { a+b } \int { h\left( x \right)  } 

Which looks like this:

Screen Shot 2013 08 26 at 12 07 04 PM

4. Copy the LaTeX equation as writing/text/syntax and paste it into the text box.

5. Install LaTeXiT from here:

https://www.macupdate.com/app/mac/17889/latexit

6. Save your document, quit Pages, to make sure it understands the new fonts. You'll only have to do this the first time you install all these things.

7. Re-open your document.

8. Highlight the equation

Screen Shot 2013 08 26 at 12 13 01 PM

9. Go to Pages: Services: Typeset LaTeX text or Typeset LaTeX Maths Display

Screen Shot 2013 08 26 at 12 14 14 PM

10. It will now render the equation as proper mathematical symbols, like so. You can now click on the equation and make it bigger if you want to check the resolution of the font.

Screen Shot 2013 08 26 at 12 15 06 PM

11. In future, you need only do steps 3, 4, 8, 9 for each equation.

Saturday, 17 August 2013

how to put a caption on a diagram in Apple Pages

1. Click on the image, specify that it's floating, rather than inline. Select the text wrap so that no text is adjacent to it for now.

2. Create a text box, type in the caption. Set the text box to floating too, rather than inline. Select the text wrap so that no text is adjacent to it for now.

3. Shift-click both objects.

4. Group.

5. Set the text wrap back to inline and the textwrap to whatever else is appropriate.

https://discussions.apple.com/thread/4264774?start=0&tstart=0

Wednesday, 14 August 2013

Wednesday, 7 August 2013

how to make folders in iOS pages, iWork

If you've noticed that iOS doesn't have a "make new folder" button in Pages and similar, do the same thing you do in the iOS app launcher: drag one document icon onto another and it will make a folder.

Completely not obvious to me. I had an epiphany. I was about to dart off an email to Tim Cook saying it sucked, then I thought... hang on. This is Apple. It has to be consistent. How do you make folders on an iOS device? Let's try one last thing... and it worked.

Incidentally, if you make folders inside

/Users/your-name/Library/Mobile Documents/com~apple~Pages/Documents/ ...

it will generate those folders on your iOS devices via iCloud too. Yay.

Thursday, 1 August 2013

monterey canyon undersea neanderthal is a hoax

The claim is that a dagger, a recurve bow, and a neanderthal skeleton, have been found in a submarine cave off the coast of california. Since neanderthals have till now only been found in the middle east and europe, this is remarkable. Moreover, they've never been found with bows or, as far as I know, elaborate art.

http://submarinearchaeologytimes.blogspot.com

Googling the same strings as appear on this site only turn up discussions of it, no academic references. It seems like someone posted this page and then everyone just parrots it. I contacted the page author and he seemed defensive, and didn't cite any proof. He claimed to also just be repeating what he found on internet "out of interest", so he might not be the author of the hoax.

If you look carefully at the dagger and the guy holding the skull you can see that the dagger is mirrored/photoshopped, and the guy and the skull, have been pasted into a generic background of a science lab.

The deathly silence in the journal repositories give this one away. Searching for "neanderthal" and "monterey" gives no results using an AND search, only if you search with OR, but then none of the articles mention both things together. This suggests that the find is completely made up.

Googling for "Pacific Shelf Research CEO, Curt Novolin" returns only repeats of the page, no such company or person shows up. Good hoax.

List of useful mac apps

This is mostly a note to self so that I can share with others when they ask which apps I recommend. Android File Transfer.app (*) get file...